Redução da maioridade penal não impactaria capacidades civil e trabalhista

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A redução da maioridade penal de 18 para 16 não impactaria as capacidades civil e trabalhista. Dessa forma, continuaria sendo preciso ter 18 anos para celebrar contratos, comprar propriedades, se casar, dirigir, trabalhar em condições perigosas ou insalubres ou cumprir jornada noturna.

Essa é a opinião de diversos juristas ouvidos pela ConJur. De acordo com o professor de Direito Civil da Universidade de São Paulo Otavio Luiz Rodrigues Júnior, a maioridade civil é independente da penal, e elas foram diferentes por muito tempo no país.

“Historicamente, o Brasil já conviveu com uma maioridade civil diferenciada da maioridade penal. No regime do Código Civil de 1916, a plena capacidade civil era alcançada ordinariamente aos 21 anos e a equivalente penal aos 18 anos. A redução para 16 anos da maioridade penal não implicará alterações na capacidade para celebrar negócios jurídicos, adquirir propriedade, praticar a maioria dos atos da vida civil”, explica.

A razão disso é que as capacidades possuem fundamentos diferentes nessas duas áreas, afirma Rodrigues Júnior. Com isso, ele diz que “reduzir a maioridade civil é aumentar as hipóteses de atuação jurídica do sujeito. Reduzir a maioridade penal é diminuir a esfera de imunidade dos sujeitos”.

O advogado Ulisses César Martins de Sousa, sócio do Ulisses Sousa Advogados Associados, tem visão semelhante. Segundo ele, a mudança de uma área não reflete automaticamente na outra.

O professor de Direito Civil da Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Luiz Fernando do Vale de Almeida Guilherme entende que a capacidade civil somente será alterada via reforma legislativa específica. Dessa maneira, ele não acha plausível que um juiz profira decisão favorável a um jovem de 16 anos que movesse uma ação reivindicando o direito de dirigir, por exemplo, sob o argumento de que teria condições para tanto, uma vez que as têm para responder por seus crimes.

No entanto, ele acredita que a redução na esfera penal poderia gerar um movimento que culminaria na diminuição da capacidade civil para 16 anos, igualando-a à criminal.

Trabalhista protegido
No campo trabalhista, a redução da maioridade penal não liberaria adolescentes de 16 anos para executar trabalhos perigosos ou insalubres, tampouco para cumprir jornada noturna. Segundo o professor de Direito do Trabalho e da Seguridade Social da USP Sérgio Pinto Martins, isso só ocorreria se proposta de emenda constitucional que aprovasse a medida também alterasse o artigo 7º, inciso XXXIII, da Constituição Federal.

Embora o artigo 60 da Carta estabeleça que só são cláusulas pétreas a forma federativa de Estado, o voto direto, secreto, universal e periódico, a separação dos poderes e os direitos e garantias individuais, elencados no artigo 5º, Pinto Martins aponta que o Supremo Tribunal Federal entende que tal proteção não se limita a esse rol.

Assim, ele diz que a corte poderia considerar a vedação ao trabalho noturno, perigoso ou insalubre para menores de 18 anos uma cláusula pétrea, tornando-a impossível de ser alterada via emenda constitucional.

O professor de Direito do Trabalho das unidades paulistanas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica e da Fundação Getulio Vargas Paulo Sérgio Joãoigualmente opina que a capacidade trabalhista não seria impactada pela diminuição da penal, uma vez que esta área visa à proteção da sociedade, enquanto aquela regula as relações de emprego.

O especialista ainda rejeita a hipótese de um empregador mover ação pedindo para funcionários de 16 e 17 anos executarem os tipos de atividade proibidos a eles pela Constituição Federal sob o argumento de equivalência com a maioridade criminal.

“Esse argumento não prosperaria. A proteção trabalhista é da condição física, é da pessoa em sua formação pessoal e profissional. Nem mesmo um menor casado, com filhos, poderia executar esses tipos de trabalho. O menor pode se emancipar quando tem independência econômica, mas nem por isso ele se submete às regras de trabalho adulto”, analisa o professor.

Pornografia e bebidas
Contudo, a redução da maioridade penal para 16 anos faria com os adolescentes desta idade não fossem mais protegidos pelos crimes previstos no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, dizem juristas ouvidos pela ConJur. Dessa forma, produzir, publicar ou vender pornografia envolvendo jovens de 16 e 17 anos não seria mais crime, nem vender bebida alcoólica ou cigarro a uma pessoa dessa faixa etária.

Com isso, as infrações penais e administrativas elencadas no Título VII do ECA deixariam de ser imputáveis a quem as cometesse contra maiores de 16 anos. Além da produção e venda de pornografia (artigos 240 a 241-E do ECA) e da venda de bebidas (artigo 243), também não seria mais possível punir quem submetesse adolescente dessa faixa etária a vexame ou constrangimento (artigo 232), promovesse o seu envio ao exterior para obter lucro (artigo 239), lhe fornecesse arma ou fogos de artifício (artigos 242 e 244) ou hospedasse-o em motel (artigo 250).

O crime de submeter criança ou adolescente à prostituição (artigos 218-B do Código Penal e 244-A do ECA) também não poderia mais ser aplicado a quem praticasse essa conduta com jovens de 16 e 17 anos. Nesse caso, a pessoa deveria responder por favorecimento à prostituição (artigo 228 do Código Penal), que tem penas menores quando envolve somente adultos (reclusão de dois a cinco anos — contra reclusão de quatro a dez).

 

Fonte: ConJur

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